The Tragedy of the Commons

The population problem has no technical solution; it requires a fundamental extension in morality.
Garrett Hardin

Science 162:1243-1248, December 13, 1968

The author is professor of biology, University of California, Santa Barbara. This article is based on a presidential address presented before the meeting of the Pacific Division of the American Association for the Advancement of Science at Utah State University, Logan, 25 June 1968.

What Shall We Maximize?

Tragedy of Freedom in a Commons


How To Legislate Temperance?

Freedom To Breed Is Intolerable

Conscience Is Self-Eliminating

Pathogenic Effects of Conscience

Mutual Coercion
Mutually Agreed Upon

Recognition of Necessity